10.CMAS Cave Diver 2 / CD2 (Cave Diver) 10.1 Diver's profile / skills and competences This is a more experienced cave diver with the knowledge on the correct usage of the required equipment and the skills to safely plan and organize cave dives in zone 2 and to execute them in the company of other certified cave divers of same or higher level. He masters all techniques to orient himself even under zero visibility and total loss of light or during a silt-out and is able to find safely back to the entrance. The use of Nitrox mixtures and of pure oxygen for decompression is acceptable within the framework of the corresponding Nitrox certification (for the course itself, a Nitrox Diver certification is a prerequi- site: O2 up to 40%) All dives have to be planned and executed in a way that any impairment of the flora and fauna of the cave is reduced to a bare minimum and the former state will be retained. 10.2 Course prerequisites & requirements 10.2.1 Requirements at start of course (admission) • minimum 18 years old • 2* Diver CMAS or equivalent • 50 logged open water dives • 10 logged open water night dives • Cave Diver 1 CMAS (Cavern Diver) or equivalent or successfully passed entry-assessment • Nitrox Diver CMAS or equivalent • valid medical attest for diving fitness according to the concerning requirements of the national fed- eration (<= 1 year) • ev. successfully passed entry-assessment 10.2.2 Additional requirements to be fulfilled until end of course • 4 cavern dives since Cave Diver 1 certification in zone 1 in at least 2 different caverns 10.2.3 Other recommended specialty certificates • Gas Blender CMAS or equivalent • Stage Tank Handling CMAS or equiva- lent • • Rescue Diver CMAS or equivalent Wreck Diver CMAS (no penetration) or equivalent 10.2.4 Entry assessment (only if needed) An entry assessment can be utilized to verify that candidates fulfill all prerequisites with regard to theo- retical knowledge, practical skills and physical performance. Candidate must successfully pass all as- sessment requirements before being accepted to course. 10.3 Minimum course duration 3.5 days 10.4 Minimum course content 4 classroom lectures (4 hours / 0.5 day) • definitions of zones 2 and 3 • CMAS training standards and safety rules for the safe exploration of zones 2 and 3 • objective, function and correct handling of required special equipment for safe cave diving in zone 2 (incl. line work) • special cave diving techniques in zones 1 an 2, incl. planning, organisation, preparation, briefing and debriefing • special requirements of underwater orientation in caves • causes, symptoms and effects for nitrogen narcosis and being out of breath • causes, symptoms and effects of oxygen toxicity • fundamentals of how to use Nitrox (with special focus on usage in caves) Standards_CMAS-INT_E_2010-1_V5.0.doc page 51 CMAS Cave Diving Standards & Training System • the governing parameters of decompression and the applied techniques with special focus on de- compression with 100 % oxygen • calculation of gas consumption and of required gas supply, application of the rule of thirds, as well as additional deviating rules and the reasons for this • analysis and assessment of a diving accident • adequate 1st aid procedures and on-site care of a victim • organisation of further support actions and alarming of rescue services • cave mapping (cross-sections, distances, topology) • the CMAS Cave Diver’s Etiquette (ref. to Appendix • cave conservation and preservation 6 practical lessons (3 days) • 6 dives in at least 3 different caves in zone 2 • training dives: refer to chapter “applications rules and procedures for use” 10.5 Academic reference & documentation A nationally accepted manual such as „Cave Diving“ from CMAS.CH or an equivalent substitute 10.6 Course leadership / assistance At least one (1) CMAS Cave Diving Instructor 2 in active teaching status. CMAS Cave Diving Instruc- tors 1 can be used as assistants, but max. two (2) Cave Diving Instructors 1 per one (1) Cave Diving Instructor 2. In reasonable cases Cave Diving Instructor 1 candidates can be used during their training. Such assis- tants must meet the following requirements: M* / 20 years old / 300 dives / 30 cave dives / zone 2 + 20 cave dives / zone 3 / in min. 10 different caves. 10.7 Student : Instructor ratios • in open water, confined area: max. 6 students per 1 instructor/assistant • in zone 1 : max. 3 students per 1 instructor/assistant • in zone 2 : max. 2 students per 1 instructor/assistant under normal (average) conditions) or max. 3 students per 1 instructor/assistant under very good conditions with regard to visibility, current, percolation, temperature, simplicity of cave profile etc. AND when using air only as breathing medium (O2-decompression does not count for) 10.8 Evaluation a) theory Theoretical knowledge will be evaluated with one single, written MC-test, consisting of 30 questions on the following topics: standards / planning & organisation / emergencies / karst phenomena and cave development / zones / cave diving techniques / uw-orientation / hand signals / equipment / gases / decompression. In order to pass, the student must have a scoring of at least 80% (correct answers). b) practical skills The standard exercises/drills for Cave Diver 2 have been added in Appendix 6b. The skills evaluation is done within the framework of a continuous evaluation system. All required qua- lifications will be repeatedly assessed and evaluated during the training course. The certificate will on- ly be given at a point when the candidate has finally passed all requirements. 10.9 Certification • CMAS double-sided card • wall certificate in A4 format Standards_CMAS-INT_E_2010-1_V5.0.doc page 52 CMAS Cave Diving Standards & Training System 10.10 International comparison of certification level This certification level corresponds with the (Apprentice) Cave Diver level from NACD, NSS, resp. CDAA Cave Diver (incl. Sinkhole Class 2). 10.11 Activities and guiding/training competences • may act as a divemaster (guidance) with already certified Cave Divers 1 in zone 1 under the terms outlined in chapter “Cave Diver 1 / Diver’s Profile, skills and competences”.